Gravity is known as the force that a planet or other body uses in drawing objects toward its center. In fact, gravity has kept Earth and other planets in orbital motion around the Sun. Despite the role of gravity in the Universe, ancient scientists do not understand the concept. Theories of gravity were established only a few centuries ago. Our first scientific knowledge of gravity was introduced by Isaac Newton in 1687.
Researchers across the world used Newton’s gravitational theory to improve their understanding of physics for about two centuries before Albert Einstein introduced his ‘General Theory of Relativity.’ Einstein’s theory covered the loopholes in Newton’s theories of gravity. However, Einstein’s theory of gravity still contains its own lapses as it cannot explain the phenomena of gravity inside a black hole and gravitational waves. A new study conducted recently has uncovered direct proof for a modified theory of gravity at low acceleration.
How Scientists Conducted This Newly Study That Challenges Einstein and Newton’s Theories of Gravity
Discoveries a new theory to improve already existing theories of gravity is something that requires lots of scientific studies. However, scientists are often ready to go the extra mile to improve our understanding of the Universe. While attempting the make a discovery for humanity, Prof. Kyu-Hyun Chae conducted new research at Sejong University in Seoul, Korea. The Professor studied the orbital behaviors of cosmic structures known as wide binary stars from data obtained by the European Space Agency’s Gaia space telescope.
These latest discoveries are so fascinating as they describe a new theory of gravity that differs from Newton’s and Einstein’s theories of gravity. Chae studied 26,500 comprehensive binary star systems that appeared within 650 lightyears from the data obtained by the Gaia telescope for this study. The Wide Binary star systems are made up of two stars in distant orbits around eat other.
The scientist studied these systems to discover that at ultra-low accelerations, the accelerations were 30 to 40% higher than traditional predictions. This points to a potential breakdown of standard gravity. A Quadratic Lagrangian (AQUAL) best explains this unusual acceleration boost.
“From the start, it seemed clear to me that gravity could be most directly and efficiently tested by calculating accelerations because the gravitational field itself is an acceleration,” Chae explained during a press brief. “My recent research experiences with galactic rotation curves led me to this idea. Galactic disks and wide binaries share some similarity in their orbits, though wide binaries follow highly elongated orbits while hydrogen gas particles in a galactic disk follow nearly circular orbits,” he said.
Chae’s study lays the platform for a broader exploration of understanding the mysteries surrounding gravity. The researcher hopes that his results will be verified and refined with the aid of better data sets.
What Scientists Learned from Newton and Einstein’s Theories of Gravity
Newton’s and Einstein’s theories of gravity changed the human understanding of the Universe. Newton’s theory was first introduced. It clearly explained the attraction between earthly bodies and beyond our planet. The revolutionary theory at the time gave scientists a real understanding of planetary motion. However, as humanity advanced technologically, scientists began to see gaps in Newton’s theory of gravity. These gaps include the ability of the theory to describe the complex gravitational phenomena, strange occurrences in Mercury’s orbit, extreme gravitational conditions of the Cosmos, and many others.
However, in 1915, Einstein published his theory of gravity titled “The General Theory of Relativity.” This fascinating theory explained gravity as the curvature of spacetime unifying mass and energy in a unique cosmic dance. Scientists used Einstein’s theory of gravity to understand the strange anomalies in Mercury’s orbit. It explained that what is going on in Mercury’s orbit is a result of the bending of starlight around large cosmic bodies during a solar eclipse.
While Einstein’s theory remains one of the most revolutionary theories of gravity in the modern world, it cannot still explain the gravity of black holes. Scientists suggested the concept of dark matter to cover the gaps created by Einstein’s theory. Researchers discovered dark matter to be invisible as it has no business with light. However, its presence can be felt through gravitational pull. However, scientists still struggle to determine the exact form dark matter exists in.
Why Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) Is Helping Scientists to Answer Some Mysterious Questions About Dark Matter
Many scientists are still in doubt if dark matter truly exists because of a lack of proof. However, other researchers have created alternate theories to answer this. Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a concept produced to explain strange galactic anomalies such as dark matter and the ones newly discovered by Chae. MOND was first introduced by Israeli scientist Mordehai Milgrom in 1983. It offers a basic concept that works in everyday situations that may act differently at very low accelerations.
This concept deviated from Newtonian physics suggesting that the gravitational fields are not strong. The concept also reveals that the force of gravity does not follow the familiar inverse square law. However, it showcases a separate functional form. Scientists often use MOND to adjust Newtonian gravity and describe gravitational anomalies such as galaxy orbital velocities without the need for dark matter.
The researcher that conducted this study published the findings in The Astrophysics Journal.
In a recent study, scientists used the data obtained from the European Space Agency’s Gaia space telescope to describe a new theory that challenges Newton’s and Einstein’s theories of gravity. The outcome of this new study is changing almost everything we know about the gravitational force of the Universe. What do you think about this fascinating discovery?